Dummy’s rights and limitations

LAW 42 – DUMMY’S RIGHTS
A. Absolute Rights
1. Dummy is entitled to give information, in the Director’s presence, as to fact or law.
2. He may keep count of tricks won and lost.
3. He plays the cards of the dummy as declarer’s agent as directed and ensures that dummy follows suit (see Law 45F if dummy suggests a play).
B. Qualified Rights

Dummy may exercise other rights subject to the limitations stated in Law 43.
1. Dummy may ask declarer (but not a defender) when he has failed to follow suit to a trick whether he has a card of the suit led.
2. He may try to prevent any irregularity.
3. He may draw attention to any irregularity, but only after play of the hand is concluded.

LAW 43 – DUMMY’S LIMITATIONS
Except as Law 42 allows:
A. Limitations on Dummy
1. (a) Dummy may not initiate a call for the Director during play unless another player has drawn attention to an irregularity.
(b) Dummy may not call attention to an irregularity during play.
(c) Dummy must not participate in the play, nor may he communicate anything about the play to declarer.

2. (a) Dummy may not exchange hands with declarer.
(b) Dummy may not leave his seat to watch declarer’s play of the hand.
(c) Dummy may not look at the face of a card in either defender’s hand.

3. A defender may not show dummy his hand.

B. If Violation Occurs
1. Dummy is liable to penalty under Law 90 for any violation of the limitations listed in A1 and A2.

2. If dummy, after his violation of the limitations listed in A2:
(a) warns declarer not to lead from the wrong hand, either defender may choose the hand from which declarer shall lead.
(b) is the first to ask declarer if a play from declarer’s hand constitutes a revoke, declarer must substitute a correct card if his play was illegal, and the provisions of Law 64 then apply as if the revoke had been established.

3. If dummy after his violation of the limitations listed in A2 is the first to draw attention to a defender’s irregularity, there is no immediate rectification. Play continues as though no irregularity had occurred. At the end of play if the defending side has gained through its irregularity the Director adjusts only its score, taking away that advantage. The declaring side retains the score achieved at the table.

LAW 45
F. Dummy Indicates Card
After dummy’s hand is faced, dummy may not touch or indicate any card (except for purpose of arrangement) without instruction from declarer. If he does so the Director should be summoned forthwith and informed of the action. Play continues. At the end of the play the Director shall award an adjusted score if he considers dummy suggested a play to declarer and the defenders were damaged by the play suggested.

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